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    Explore the facinating history of New Lanark

Date
Date: 1739 - 1806
Title
David Dale

The founders of New Lanark were David Dale, a Glasgow banker and entrepreneur, and Richard Arkwright, the inventor and pioneer of industrial cotton spinning. Their partnership dissolved after only a year but Dale continued to run new Lanark for another 15 years, establishing a philanthropic tradition which was further developed by subsequent owners.

Early Life & Background

Early Life & Background

Dale was born on 6th January, 1739, the son of William Dale, a poor grocer from Stewarton in Ayrshire, and his wife Anne. Dale served as a weaver's apprentice in Paisley and from there, aged 24, moved to Glasgow where he set up as a textile merchant. This proved a lucrative market to enter and 20 years of ensuing prosperity, including becoming a burgher of Glasgow and a member of the Merchant Guild and Trades House, culminated in Dale’s appointment as the first Glasgow agent for the Royal Bank. Dale also became interested in manufacturing and in the space of three years, set up a Turkey-red dyeworks at Dalmarnock and cotton mills in Catrine, Blantyre and, of course, New Lanark. Dale was active in the foundation of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce and was elected a magistrate of the city of Glasgow in 1791 and 1794.

Family Life

Family Life

David Dale's House on Charlotte Street, Glasgow

During his time in Glasgow, Dale acquired a well-connected wife, Anne Carolina Campbell, the daughter of John Campbell, an Edinburgh Director of the Royal Bank. Dale and Anne purchased a house in Charlotte Street, Glasgow- designed by Robert Adam, one of the best known architects of the day- and had at least six children: Anne Caroline- who went on to marry Robert Owen, William, Jean Maxwell, Margaret, Mary and Julia Johnston.

Philanthropy and Religion

Philanthropy and Religion

Glasgow Royal Infirmary c. 1812

Looking at his business interests, there can be no doubt that David Dale was a rich man, but he was also deeply religious, with a concern for philanthropy, education and the welfare of his workers. In the 1760s, in protest at the system of ecclesiastical partonage, he left the Church of Scotland and became a founder member of the strongly missionary Old Scotch Independent church. Dale also provided philanthropic support to various causes, including the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Town Hospital, the Royal Infirmary, Bridewell prisoners, Calton charity school, the Andersonian Institution and the Humane Society. Concerned at the volume of emigration form Scotland, much of which was linked to the Highland Clearances, Dale established cotton mills in places as far apart as Oban, Stanley in Perthshire and Spinningdale in Sutherland. Spinningdale, the most conspicuously philanthropic of these ventures, was established with the specific intention to create industry, wealth and employment in the Highlands.

New Lanark

New Lanark

Other business and philanthropic ventures aside, it is possibly New Lanark for which Dale is best remembered. Dale was viewed as a kind and paternalistic manager by his workers, for whom he provided good quality, clean housing. In 1791, 'The Fortune', a ship sailing from Skye to North Carolina, was forced into Greenock by storms. On hearing of this, Dale sent a representative to offer employment to the would-be-migrants, which over 100 took up. The working day was long, beginning at 6am and finishing at 7pm with only half an hour for breakfast and an hour for dinner but the food provided was excellent by the standards of the day. Breakfast was as much porridge as the spinners could eat and dinner was often barley broth with 'good fresh beef, cheese or, in season, herrings and potatoes.

Dale also employed children as part of his workforce- 800 young people, including orphans or 'pauper apprentices', of a workforce of 1157 in 1793- but they were well cared for by the standards of the day. In 1796, Dale reported to the Manchester Board of Health that his dormitories accommodated 396 boys and girls: There are six sleeping apartments for them, and three children are allowed to each bed. The ceilings and walls of the apartments are whitewashed twice a year with hot lime and the floors are washed with scalding water and sand. The children sleep on wooden-bottomed beds on bed ticks filled with straw which is in general changed once a month. A sheet covers the bed ticks and above that there are one or two pairs of blankets and a bed cover as the season requires. The bedrooms are carefully swept and the windows thrown open every morning in which state they remain through the day. Of late, cast iron beds have been introduced in place of wooden ones. The upper body clothing in use in summer both for boys and girls is entirely of cotton which, as they have spare suits to change with, are washed once a fortnight. In the winter the boys are dressed in woollen cloth and they, as well as the girls have complete dress suits for Sundays. Their linens are changed once a week. For a few months in summer both boys and girls go without shoes and stockings.

Dale introduced a structured and progressive system of education for his child workers, establishing a school which, by 1796, employed 16 teachers and instructed 507 pupils in reading, writing and arithmetic. Two part-time teachers also taught sewing and church music. Younger children attended during the day and older ones once they had completed their days work.

Retirement, Legacy and Death

Retirement, Legacy and Death

Rosebank Estate, Cambuslang

In 1800, Dale purchased the estate of Rosebank, near Cambuslang, with a view to retirement. He had begun to sell his mills, including, most importantly, the sale of New Lanark to his son-in-law, Robert Owen in 1799. Catrine followed in 1801, Spinningdale in 1804 and Dalmarnock in 1805. Dale died at Rosebank on 17th March, 1806.

You can find out more about David Dale from the following sources: David J McLaren, David Dale of New Lanark (Milngavie: Heatherbank Press, 1983. 2nd ed., 1990) The Story of New Lanark, New Lanark Trust RBS Heritage Archives: http://heritagearchives.rbs.com/people/list/david-dale.html

1739 - 1806

David Dale

The founders of New Lanark were David Dale, a Glasgow banker and entrepreneur, and Richard Arkwright, the inventor and pioneer of industrial cotton spinning. Their partnership dissolved after only a...

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  • 1700

    Artistic Inspiration

    Many of the greatest artists, writers and poets of the Scottish Enlightenment visit the Falls of the Clyde.

  • 1771

    Jacob More

    The Falls of Clyde series is painted by Jacob More.

  • 1784

    Industrial Inspiration

    David Dale, a Glasgow businessman and entrepreneur, and Richard Arkwright, the inventor of the water-powered spinning frame, visit a site near the Falls of the Clyde with a view to building cotton spinning mills.

  • 1785

    New Lanark Founded

    A new cotton-spinning village is founded by Dale and Arkwright just downstream of the Falls of Clyde. As historic Royal Burgh at the top of the hill is called Lanark, Dale and Arkwright decide to call their site 'New Lanark'.

  • 1785-1795

    Braxfield Row

    Braxfield Row, the first row of housing met with on the road into the village, was constructed somewhere between 1785 and 1795. In a 1903 insurance valuation, it had 18 houses of two apartments, 18 of one apartment and wash-houses in the basement.

  • 1786

    Going Solo

    After several business disagreements, Dale and Arkwright dissolve their partnership, leaving Dale as sole owner of the mills.

  • 1786

    Mill 1

    Mill 1, completed at the end of 1785, begins production. Three waterwheels drive 4500 spindles in 1793 and 6556 in 1802.

  • 1788

    Mill 2

    Mill 2 is completed in an identical style to Mill 1. It has 3 water wheels driving 6000 spindles. In the same year, Mill 1 burns down, only to be rebuilt on the same footprint the following year.

  • 1790

    Mantilla Row

    Mantilla Row is constructed c.1790. In 1903 it has one three-apartment house, three two-apartment houses and one one-apartment house, making it the smallest tenememt row in New Lanark.

  • 1790

    Managers Housing

    Two detatched houses (now known as 'David Dale's House and Robert Owen's House) are constructed, one as a secondary residence for David Dale and one for his Manager William Kelly.

  • 1791

    The Fortune

    Emigrant ship 'The Fortune' en-route to America from Skye, is forced into Greenock by storms. David Dale offers employment and accommodation to the passengers.

  • 1792

    Mill 3

    Mill 3 is completed and acts as the 'Jeanie house' for both common and lightly powered self-acting spinning jennies to William Kelly's patent.

  • 1792

    Caithness Row

    Built c.1792, Caithness Row is named after the origin of some of the Highlanders attracted to the village. In 1903 it contains five two-apartment houses and 20 one-apartment houses with wash-houses in the basement.

  • 1792

    Long Row

    Constructed c.1792, Long Row is, unsurprisingly, the longest of the tenement rows in New Lanark. In 1903 it has one three-apartment house, eight two-apartment houses and 20 one-apartment houses with wash-houses in the basement.

  • 1793

    Mill 4

    Mill 4 is completed and first used as a storeroom, workshop and boarding house for 275 children 'who have no parents'. After 1813 it was fitted up as a mule-spinning mill.

  • 1798-1810

    New Buildings

    The large tenement row called New Buildings is constructed over 12 years to replace earlier single-storey cottages on the site. In 1903 it contains a surgery, lavatory and doctor's house in addition to 18 two-apartment houses, four one-apartment houses and halls on the upper floors for Sunday Schools and Gaelic church services.

  • 1798

    Robert Owen

    Robert Owen, a young Manchester-based Mill Manager, visits New Lanark for the first time.

  • 1799

    Robert Scott

    The earliest illustrations of New Lanark are made by the artist Robert Scott.

  • 1799

    Marriage & Partnership

    Caroline Dale, the eldest daughter of David Dale, and Robert Owen are married. Robert Owen forms a partnership with John Barton of Manchester and John Atkinson of London and purchases the New Lanark Mills from his new father-in-law David Dale for £60,000.

  • 1800

    The Great Experiment

    Robert Owen assumes management of New Lanark on the first day of the New Year and begins his 'Great Experiment' of social, moral, educational and workplace reforms. His partners and workers are at first unsure of his reform.

  • 1806

    A Turning Point

    Owen continues to pay his workers despite no production taking place due to an American embargo on the export of raw cotton.This proves a turning point in attitudes towards Owen and his reforms.

  • 1806

    Mechanic's Workshop & Dyeworks

    The Mechanic's Workshop and Dyeworks (originally the brass and iron foundry) are added to the village by Robert Owen. These buildings mean New Lanark is near self-suffiient in making its own mchinery, millwright work and structural castings.

  • 1809

    Nursery Buildings

    Nursery Buildings, with its rear turnpike stair projections to allow for dormitories, is constructed to house New Lanark's 'pauper apprentices' then adapted to family dwellings shortly afterwards. In 1903 it contains one three-apartment house, seven two-apartment houses, one one-apartment house and washouses in the basement.

  • 1809-1810

    Waterhouses

    A series of 2-storey buildings stradling the tailrace are constructed to be used as a raw and waste cotton stores and picking houses. They stretch from Mill 1 along to Mill 4 but a fire in 1919 burns down those behind Mills 3 and 4.

  • 1810

    Partners

    Owen dissolves his partnership with Barton and Atkinson and finds new partners.

  • 1810

    The Village Store

    The Village Store is established by Owen. It is located on the ground floor of Nursery Buildings and sells quality goods at fair prices. Workers can elect to be paid in tickets or tokens which can be exchanged for goods at the store.

  • 1810-1816

    The Counting House

    The bowed Counting House is added to the end of Caithness Row by Robert Owen somewhere between 1810 and 1816. The Counting House acts as Owen's office, giving him oversight of the village and is where villagers collect their 'tickets for wages'.

  • 1813

    A Potential Bayout

    Faced with hostility and a potential buyout from his new partners, Owen travels to London to find new partners who will support his 'Great Experiment'. His new partners, including John Walker, are predominantly Quakers.

  • 1816

    The Institute for the Formation of Character

    Owen opens the centrepiece of his social experiment- The Institute for the Formation of Character, which is used as a social and educational centre for the villagers.

  • 1817

    The School for Children

    Owen opens the partner building to the Institute, the School for Children.

  • 1818

    John Winning

    Robert Owen commissions the artist John Winning to produce a series of watercolours of New Lanark. These are printed and used as export labels on packages of cotton.

  • 1819

    Fire

    Mill 3 burns down (a common occurrence in cotton mills) but is rebuilt in 1826 with a cast iron frame to help prevent fire.

  • 1820

    Report to the County of Lanark

    Robert Owen publishes his 'Report to the county of Lanark' in which he argues that reform alone is not enough and that a change of social order is required.

  • 1824

    Pasteurs New

    Owen leaves New Lanark for New Harmony, Indiana as he feels he will have more success promoting his ideals on social reform in 'the New World'.

1771 - 1858

Robert Owen

It was under the enlightened management of Robert Owen that New Lanark became famous. Robert Owen married David Dale’s daughter, Caroline Dale, in 1799 and in the same year formed a partnership to...

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  • 1798

    Robert Owen

    Robert Owen, a young Manchester-based Mill Manager, visits New Lanark for the first time.

  • 1799

    Robert Scott

    The earliest illustrations of New Lanark are made by the artist Robert Scott.

  • 1799

    Marriage & Partnership

    Caroline Dale, the eldest daughter of David Dale, and Robert Owen are married. Robert Owen forms a partnership with John Barton of Manchester and John Atkinson of London and purchases the New Lanark Mills from his new father-in-law David Dale for £60,000.

  • 1800

    The Great Experiment

    Robert Owen assumes management of New Lanark on the first day of the New Year and begins his 'Great Experiment' of social, moral, educational and workplace reforms. His partners and workers are at first unsure of his reform.

  • 1806

    A Turning Point

    Owen continues to pay his workers despite no production taking place due to an American embargo on the export of raw cotton.This proves a turning point in attitudes towards Owen and his reforms.

  • 1806

    Mechanic's Workshop & Dyeworks

    The Mechanic's Workshop and Dyeworks (originally the brass and iron foundry) are added to the village by Robert Owen. These buildings mean New Lanark is near self-suffiient in making its own mchinery, millwright work and structural castings.

  • 1809

    Nursery Buildings

    Nursery Buildings, with its rear turnpike stair projections to allow for dormitories, is constructed to house New Lanark's 'pauper apprentices' then adapted to family dwellings shortly afterwards. In 1903 it contains one three-apartment house, seven two-apartment houses, one one-apartment house and washouses in the basement.

  • 1809-1810

    Waterhouses

    A series of 2-storey buildings stradling the tailrace are constructed to be used as a raw and waste cotton stores and picking houses. They stretch from Mill 1 along to Mill 4 but a fire in 1919 burns down those behind Mills 3 and 4.

  • 1810

    Partners

    Owen dissolves his partnership with Barton and Atkinson and finds new partners.

  • 1810

    The Village Store

    The Village Store is established by Owen. It is located on the ground floor of Nursery Buildings and sells quality goods at fair prices. Workers can elect to be paid in tickets or tokens which can be exchanged for goods at the store.

  • 1810-1816

    The Counting House

    The bowed Counting House is added to the end of Caithness Row by Robert Owen somewhere between 1810 and 1816. The Counting House acts as Owen's office, giving him oversight of the village and is where villagers collect their 'tickets for wages'.

  • 1813

    A Potential Bayout

    Faced with hostility and a potential buyout from his new partners, Owen travels to London to find new partners who will support his 'Great Experiment'. His new partners, including John Walker, are predominantly Quakers.

  • 1816

    The Institute for the Formation of Character

    Owen opens the centrepiece of his social experiment- The Institute for the Formation of Character, which is used as a social and educational centre for the villagers.

  • 1817

    The School for Children

    Owen opens the partner building to the Institute, the School for Children.

  • 1818

    John Winning

    Robert Owen commissions the artist John Winning to produce a series of watercolours of New Lanark. These are printed and used as export labels on packages of cotton.

  • 1819

    Fire

    Mill 3 burns down (a common occurrence in cotton mills) but is rebuilt in 1826 with a cast iron frame to help prevent fire.

  • 1820

    Report to the County of Lanark

    Robert Owen publishes his 'Report to the county of Lanark' in which he argues that reform alone is not enough and that a change of social order is required.

  • 1824

    Pasteurs New

    Owen leaves New Lanark for New Harmony, Indiana as he feels he will have more success promoting his ideals on social reform in 'the New World'.

1855 - 1855

The Walkers

Charles and Henry Walker were the sons of John Walker, Owen's wealthy and much respected Quaker partner. Like Robert Owen, the Walkers were humanitarian employers. As members of the Society of...

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  • 1825

    New Owners

    Having decided to settle in America, Owen sells New Lanark to Charles and Henry Walker, the sons of his Quaker partner, John Walker.

  • 1825-1881

    Life Under the Walkers

    The Walkers continue to run a successful business at New Lanark, despite fierce competition from mills in the north of England. They also continue with some of Owen's ideas, mainly maintaining the Institute as a social and educational centre.

  • 1851

    No Sale

    The Walkers make an unsuccessful attempt to sell New Lanark.

  • 1880

    Alterations

    The Gourock Ropework Compant make a series of alterations to the fabric of the site to help improve and increase production. These include the extension of Mill 2 and the dismantling of its pitched roof as well as the addition of the Engine House to the side of the Institute to house the 550HP Petrie Steam Engine.

  • 1881

    Henry Birkmyre

    Walker & Co. sell New Lanark to Henry Birkmyre of the Gourock Ropework Company.

  • 1883

    Mill 4 Fire

    Mill 4 is burned to the ground and never rebuilt.

  • 1884

    School Move

    The School for Children is given over to net production and pupils are relocated to a new Board of Education School at the top of the hill.

  • 1898

    Village Church

    Villagers petition the Gourock Ropework company for land on which to build a church. An area of hillside opposite Mantilla Row is allocated and the foundation stone of the church is laid by The Hon. James Hozier MP, a Right Worshipful Past Grand Master of the Craft.

  • 1933

    The Co-Operative Society

    The Village Store is leased to the Lanark Provident Co-Operative Society.

  • 1957

    Saltire Society Award

    Saltire Society award for Gourock Ropeworks’ maintenance of the village.

  • 1963

    New Lanark Housing Association

    The New Lanark Housing Association is formed to restore and refurbish the millworkers' tenements. Formation of New Lanark Association by Norman Dunhill, visit of Kenneth Dale Owen, start of Caithness Row and Nursery Buildings restoration through Housing Acts

  • 1966-1968

    Restoration of Caithness Row

    The interiors of Caithness Row are altered and renovated by architects Ian G. Lindsay and Partners.

  • 1968

    Mills Close

    The New Lanark Mills shut down with the loss of c.350 jobs.

1795 - 1845

Gourock Ropework Co.

On 16th May 1881, Birkmyre and Somerville, joint partners in the newly established Lanark Spinning Company, paid £20,000 for the mills. Henry Birkmyre of the Gourock Ropework Company (GRC), and his...

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  • 1880

    Alterations

    The Gourock Ropework Compant make a series of alterations to the fabric of the site to help improve and increase production. These include the extension of Mill 2 and the dismantling of its pitched roof as well as the addition of the Engine House to the side of the Institute to house the 550HP Petrie Steam Engine.

  • 1881

    Henry Birkmyre

    Walker & Co. sell New Lanark to Henry Birkmyre of the Gourock Ropework Company.

  • 1883

    Mill 4 Fire

    Mill 4 is burned to the ground and never rebuilt.

  • 1884

    School Move

    The School for Children is given over to net production and pupils are relocated to a new Board of Education School at the top of the hill.

  • 1898

    Village Church

    Villagers petition the Gourock Ropework company for land on which to build a church. An area of hillside opposite Mantilla Row is allocated and the foundation stone of the church is laid by The Hon. James Hozier MP, a Right Worshipful Past Grand Master of the Craft.

  • 1933

    The Co-Operative Society

    The Village Store is leased to the Lanark Provident Co-Operative Society.

  • 1957

    Saltire Society Award

    Saltire Society award for Gourock Ropeworks’ maintenance of the village.

  • 1963

    New Lanark Housing Association

    The New Lanark Housing Association is formed to restore and refurbish the millworkers' tenements. Formation of New Lanark Association by Norman Dunhill, visit of Kenneth Dale Owen, start of Caithness Row and Nursery Buildings restoration through Housing Acts

  • 1966-1968

    Restoration of Caithness Row

    The interiors of Caithness Row are altered and renovated by architects Ian G. Lindsay and Partners.

  • 1968

    Mills Close

    The New Lanark Mills shut down with the loss of c.350 jobs.

1855 - Present

New Lanark Trust

New Lanark Trust is a Registered Scottish Charity (SC008552) which was established in 1974 with the aim of restoring and regenerating the former cotton mill village of New Lanark as a living and...

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  • 1970

    MetEx

    The Mill area of New Lanark is sold to MetEx, an aluminium extraction company. Metal Extractions take over industrial area for scrap business, School roof collapses.

  • 1971

    Debating the Future

    A working group is set up to consider the future of New Lanark Village. Complete demolition is one consideration. First Civic Trust award for housing restoration at Nursey Buildings and shops.

  • 1972

    Scottish Civil Trust

    New Lanark Working Party convened by Scottish Civic Trust and chaired by Provost Harry Smith.

  • 1973

    A-Listing

    All of the buildings on the site are given 'Category A' listing by Historic Scotland, meaning they are 'buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type.' “A Future for New Lanark” report by Lanark County Council and Strathclyde University School of Planning published and adopted

  • 1974

    New Lanark Conservation Trust

    New Lanark Conservation Trust is founded with the aim of restoring and revitalising New Lanark as a living and working village. Work beginning initially on the millworkers' housing.

  • 1975

    Local Government Reorganised

    local government reorganised – SRC and CDC replace County and Burgh as partners;

  • 1975-1980

    Restoration of Braxfield Row

    Braxfield Row is developed into ten single terraced houses for sale to restorer-purchasers.

  • 1977

    Braxfield Row

    Braxfield Row sold to restoring purchasers.

  • 1977

    Restoration of Long Row

    Long Row is developed into 10 terraced houses for sale to restorer purchasers and an additional 4 for let by the New Lanark Housing Association.

  • 1978

    Dale & Owen's Houses

    MetEx is persuaded to sell David Dale's House and Robert Owen's House to the New Lanark Housing association.

  • 1983

    Restoration of the Mills

    Restoration of the mill area of the site begins following the transfer of the ownership of the mills to NLCT through a Compulsory Purchase Order.

  • 1983

    Purchase Order for the Institute and Industrial Buildings Confirmed

    compulsory purchase order for the Institute and industrial buildings confirmed by the Secretary of State for Scotland George Younger, NHMF acquisition grant, New Lanark Conservation Trust created by Trust Deed, industrial buildings transferred to NLCT, Robert Owen’s School building restored and mothballed.

  • 1984

    Falls of the Clyde Opened

    SWT centre and Falls of Clyde reserve opened, mills area cleaned up, Development Officer appointed (SDA funding), Friends of New Lanark formed; Harry Smith’s MBE.

  • 1985

    First Inclusion

    first inclusion in UK Tentative List for World Heritage status, Bicentenary celebrations.

  • 1987

    Europa Nostra Medal of Honour

    Europa Nostra Medal of Honour, NLA properties restoration completed (45 tenancies), New Buildings opened by the Duke of Gloucester.

  • 1988

    Mantilla Row Demolished

    After being temporarily shored in 1977 following settlement of its foundations, Mantilla Row is demolished conditional to its rebuilding by 1993. This condition is later removed and rather than being rebuilt, the footprint of Mantilla Row will be laid out (2017) and interpreted, in a similar style to the site of Mill 4.

  • 1989

    New Lanark Trading Ltd established

    New Lanark Trading Ltd established; Jim Arnold's MBE.

  • 1990

    New Lanark Visitor Centre

    The New Lanark Visitor Centre is opened in Mill 3.

  • 1993

    Restoration of Mill 1

    Work begins on the restoration of Mill 1, with a view to transforming it into a hotel.

  • 1994

    Wee Row Youth Hostel

    Wee Row (the smaller of the two Double Row tenement blocks) is transformed into the Wee Row Youth Hostel and managed by the Scottish Youth Hostel Association.

  • 1998

    New Lanark Mill Hotel

    The New Lanark Mill Hotel opens in Mill 1.

  • 2001

    World Heritage Status

    New Lanark is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

  • 2001

    School for Children Restored

    Robert Owen's School for Children is restored and converted into part of the New Lanark Visitor Centre.

  • 2007

    Roof Garden

    The New Lanark Roof Garden opens on the roof of Mill 2

  • 2010

    The Scottish Ten

    New Lanark is the first site to be documented as part of the 'Scottish Ten' project- a five year project by the Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualisation to digitally record scotland's five World Heritage Sites and 5 international sites. http://www.scottishten.org/

  • 2013

    Search Room

    The New Lanark Search Room opens to the public. This contains New Lanark's historic collections and archive.

  • 2014

    Clearburn Natural Picnic & Play Area

    Clearburn Natural Picnic & Play Area opens on the site that Robert Owen originally used for nature education.

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